Fobia Islam. Inilah fenomena umum yang hingga kini kerap melanda negara-negara Eropa. Termasuk juga Belanda. Poin ini pula yang disinggung Jurjen Aandewiel, Ketua Pemuda Muslim Eropa, Cabang Denhaag, Belanda, saat mendapat kesempatan berbicara pada Jakarta International Islamic Conference (JAIIC) 29 November-1 Desember 2016 lalu. Baginya, memang, tantangan dakwah Islam di Belanda itu fobiaIslam, ketakutan terhadap agama Islam.
Ada beberapa alasan yang membuat hal tersebut bisa terjadi. Mulai dari faktor internal Muslim sendiri hingga faktor eksternal non-Muslim (warga asli Belanda). Secara internal, jelas Jurjen, dalam konferensi internasional yang diadakan MUI DKI Jakarta, pemicunya bisa dilacak pada rerata Muslim Belanda yang notabene imigran dari Turki, Maroko, Aljazair, Tunisia, Indonesia dan lainnya kurang berbaur secara kultural dan persuasif. Menurut Jurjen, para imigran Muslim generasi pertama (sekitar 50 tahun lalu)– yang saat ini sudah terintegrasi dengan penduduk Belanda– memandang agama Islam lebih terhubung dengan asal muasal mereka, mulai dari budaya, gaya hidup hingga bahasa.
Pada level praktik keberagamaan seperti khutbah shalat Jumat, contohnya. Khatibnya rata-rata masih menggunakan bahasa Arab sebagai bahasa komunikasi berdakwah. “Tentu saja bahasa Arab sangat penting karena ini memang bahasa agama kita. Namun, saya berpandangan seyogyanya disampaikan juga dalam bahasa Belanda agar orang yang mendengar lebih mendapatkan pemahaman yang lebih baik seputar ajaran-ajaran Islam,” jelas Jurjen. Itu yang terjadi pada generasi awal imigran Muslim di Belanda. Sementara bagi generasi muda Muslimnya, alhamdulillah, sudah mulai tampak menyesuaikan dan berasimilasi secara kultural. Banyak dari pemuda Muslim Belanda, imbuh Jurjen, yang sekarang ini sudah mau menelusuri akar mereka dan berusaha tampil sebagai Muslim yang terbuka dan inklusif.
Sedang dari sisi eksternal, mayoritas warga asli Belanda masih melihat Muslim Belanda sebelah mata. Mereka malah acapkali menganggap rendah status sosial kaum Muslim Belanda. Pikiran sempit ini timbul karena kaum Muslim dipandang bukan bagian dari masyarakat Belanda. “Namun perlakuan sebaliknya justru kepada Kristen, Yahudi, dan (penganut) humanisme,” ujar Jurjen, mempertegas. Apalagi sejak kasus-kasus 9/11, ISIS dan lain-lainnya yang ramai di media massa. Tidak aneh bila usaha mengikis fobia Islam menjadi tantangan berdakwah tersendiri di Belanda.
Kendati begitu, Jurjen meyakini bahwa warga negara Belanda yang lazimnya tidak beragama (terutama sekali pemudanya) lambat laut akan mengenal Islam, hingga Islam akan tampil ke permukaan dan dihormati. Secara pertumbuhan populasi sendiri, populasi Muslim belanda kian meningkat dan bertumbuh, walau tidak banyak. Saat ini, penduduk Muslim Belanda berkisar 6% dari jumlah penduduk Belanda. Pertumbuhanya semakin bagus sekalipun Islam dikucilkan oleh sebagian besar masyarakat Belanda. Semoga saja demikian. (Muaz)
Berikut ini kami lampirkan makalah yang disampaikan Jurjen dalam JAIIC:
The importance of Dakwah facing the challenges of Islam in the Netherlands
by Jurjen Aandewiel
1.1 To understand the importance of Dakwah in the Netherlands it is preferable to have a general overview of position of religion in the Dutch society. Over last 50 years the number of people that are connected to a religion shows a steady decline. At this moment more than half the Dutch population is without religion at all, especially young people are not religious. Religion does not play an important role in Dutch society anymore and to go public with your religion is not appreciated. In public schools religion is not a subject at all.
1.2 However in the last 50 years Muslims became a relatively large part of the religious inhabitants of the Netherlands. At this moment about 6% of the Dutch population is Muslim. The vast majority of them have a migration background, they are 1st or 2nd or 3rd generation migrants mainly from Turkey and Morocco. However in recent years we also saw many Muslim immigrants from Kosovo, Somalia, Algeria, Tunesia and now Syria entering the Netherlands. The Indonesian Muslims and the Dutch converts are a very small minority among the Muslims living in the Netherlands.
1.3 The origin of Muslims in the Netherlands is very diverse meaning a wide diversity of Mazhabs that they follow. The first generation Muslim immigrants saw their religion very much connected with their culture. In fact they saw it as one. That was the reason that there was only very little interaction between the different groups. Nowadays the young and conscious Muslims can see the distinction between the Islam and their culture and may search for knowledge outside their traditional Mazhab.
2.1.1 The traditional religions in the Netherlands are declining and in the mean time there is an increase of Muslims. Many Muslims are recognisable by their clothes especially woman wearing a jilbab or men going to the mosque in Muslim clothes. This gives some individuals the perception that there is an Islamisation going on in the Dutch community and stirring up fear that the Dutch culture will vanish. The recent terrorist attacks in Europe give them even more reasons to believe so. The result is a negative and hostile attitude towards Muslims by a large group of Dutch people and a demand of de-islamisation by closing mosques and to ban jilbabs.
2.1.2 The low status of religion and negative attitude of Dutch people towards Islam may cause that young Muslims will neglect or even give up their religion. Especially when their faith holds so many restrictions for them and their Dutch peers are not restricted by religion at all. This in combination with a lack of Dakwah in their past may cause them to leave their faith.
2.2 The Islam is seen as an immigrant religion and because of it not seen as a part of Dutch society. Maybe that was the case when the first generation Muslim immigrants entered the Netherlands 50 years ago, expected to stay only for a limited time. Nowadays it is clear that Islam will stay in the Netherlands and the challenge is to make Islam fully accepted with an equal status as Christianity, Judaism and Humanism. The 2nd and 3rd generation immigrants have become completely integrated in Dutch society but still find it hard to ask a day off on Islamic holidays or to pray in the work place. Dutch people who feel the urge to become Muslim are sometimes seen as a traitor because people have the perception that they step away from Dutch society. If Islam will be accepted as a part of that Dutch society it will be easier for Dutch people to become Muslim and their even might be a national holiday on one of the Islamic holidays.
2.3.1 At this moment Muslims are still very much connected with their country of origin, so there are Maroc, Turkish, Surinam, Indonesian and many more mosques. The khotbah on Friday is most of the time still held in the language of origin as a courtesy towards to older generation. The younger generation would benefit more from a khotbah in the Dutch language so sometimes there is a summary of the khotbah in the Dutch language afterward but not very often. Besides that there are often Muslims from other origins and Dutch converts present in the Mosque who are not able understand the khotbah in the language of origin of the mosque. Young muslims and Dutch Muslims may get the feeling that they are not taken seriously.
2.3.2 Nowadays Muslims marry more and more outside the group of origin. For example a man of Indonesian origin marries a woman of Moroccan origin and a man of Turkish origin marries a Dutch converted woman. It is inevitable that over time there will be a demand for an Islam in the Netherlands that will be independent from other countries and where the common language will be Dutch. Of course Arab will remain very important since it is the language of our religion. It is good to already prepare for new Dutch Islam by seeking for common ground by the different groups of Muslims in the Netherlands. The different Mazhabs may cause problems however it is a challenge to overcome this and find a solution.
3.1.1 To reduce if not stop the negative image of Islam it is necessary to educate the Dutch people and show them the true values of Islam. At this time the level of knowledge of Islam by the Dutch is very low and we can say that fear of the Islam is mainly fear of the unknown. If there is any knowledge present it comes often from an unreliable source like Muslim haters who depicts all Muslims as extremists and twist the message of Islam. Muslims must become aware that not only their words but especially their actions can change the way the Dutch people see the Islam.
3.1.2 At the same time we must surround our children with Dakwah to strengthen their Imaan. Only then they can resist the temptations they are confronted with in western daily life. Instead of being restricted by their religion they must be proud to be a Muslim and feel protected by their faith. In this sense family plays a significant role to educate children the importance of Islamic teaching. In the secular environment the muslim home will be a base of understanding and maintenance of a strong conviction of religious faith in Islam.
3.2 To make Islam fully accepted with an equal status as Christianity, Judaism and Humanism in Dutch society it is necessary to be open to this Dutch society. To show that the Islam is a peaceful religion and to condemn all terrorism that is conducted in the name of Islam. Muslims needs to be a aware that they also are a part of Dutch society and can reach high positions. Role models can help to establish that awareness like Mr. Ahmed Aboutaleb, a faithful Muslim, who is now Major of Rotterdam, the second large city of the Netherlands. To build awareness there must be self confidence. How does a Muslim get self confidence: by knowing his/her religion. How does he/she get knowledge: by Dakwah. So key to acceptance of Islam in Dutch society is Dakwah.
3.3.1 To make sure that Islam will get a strong foundation in the Netherlands we must look to the new generation and give them the knowledge they need. Knowledge is best absorbed if it is given in the language they understand best. For most of the new generation of Muslims it is not the language of their ancestors but the language of the country they live in. So in the Netherlands give the Dakwah in the Dutch language to get better and deeper understanding.
3.3.2 Through Dakwah the Islam in the Netherlands will become a valuable addition to the Dutch society InsyaAllah. At this time the Islam is still very segregated by origin but over time more and more Dutch people will convert to Islam. Besides that, the origin of the Muslims will diffuse over time. A new Dutch based Islam will appear and to prepare for it we must already concentrate on the things the Mazhabs has in common. InsyaAllah we will learn that our common ground will be the key to success.
The Islam in the Netherlands is evolving itself from a migrant religion into a religion with an equal status as the existing religions in the Netherlands. A large part of the Muslims is not a migrant anymore but born and raised in the Netherlands and the group of Dutch Muslims is still growing Alhamdulillah. To meet the challenges of this process there is one thing that proves to be essential, that one thing is: Dakwah. Even better: Dakwah in the Dutch language. Dakwah will provide the Dutch Muslims with: knowledge, Imaan and self-confidence. In the end Dakwah will prove itself to be the key for Islam to find its place in Dutch society, InsyaAllah.